Silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite composite membranes: Production, characterization and toxicity evaluation
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Alloplastic materials based on biopolymers such as silk fibroin (SF) have provided the synthesis of excellent biomaterials for bone repair. The aim of the present study was to produce SF membranes associated to hydroxyapatite (HA) and evaluate their physicochemical characteristics and the toxicity potential. After obtaining the SF, the HPLC was executed to verify the elimitation of serecin, a toxic protein of the silk, and the cytotoxicity assay was assessed in the subtances from the SF processing. SF and SF-HA membranes were evaluated by SEM, EDS, FTIR, mechanical properties and toxicity (cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenic effects). The serecin was elimined in the SF process, and its cytotoxicity was confirmed. SF and SF-HA membranes presented interesting results based on the physicochemical characterization. SF membrane showed cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects. In conclusion, SF and SF-HA membranes presented adequate mechanical resistance to act respectively as wound healing or bone filling materials, and they were hydrophilic. SF-HA membrane did not present any toxic potential and allowed cell adhesion and proliferation. The unexpected cyto/genotoxicity and mutagenic effect of SF evidenced the importance of investigating the toxic potential of biomaterials, mainly those in contact with human body for prolonged time.
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