Electrical stimulation enhances early palatal wound healing in mice
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Background/objective: Electrical stimulation (ES) has been used to treat chronic wound and other clinical applications, showing favorable results in wound closure. It was hypothesized that ES can present a positive effect on oral mucosa healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ES during the palatal mucosa early healing process in Swiss mice. Methods: Ninety animals were divided into two groups: Control (C; n = 45), which received Sham ES applications, and Test (ES; n = 45), which received ES (100 μA; 9 kHz; 660 mVpp) once a day for 3 days. A full thickness wound was performed with a 1.5 mm diameter biopsy punch in the hard palate. Histologically, the following parameters were evaluated: palatal wound closure and epithelial and connective wound edge distance (EED and CED). Furthermore, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 TNF-α, and VEGF cytokine levels were evaluated by multiplex assay. The percentage of collagen fibers was assessed using the polarization method and the Smad proteins using the immunofluorescence method. Results: Palatal wound closure presented a significant reduction on day 5 in the ES group (p = 0.01). Additionally, both EED and CED were shorter for all time points in the ES group (p < 0.05), and the inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and VEGF were reduced (p < 0.05). There were no differences in collagen fibers and phospho-Smad2 between the groups. Conclusion: ES had a positive effect on early palatal wound closure outcomes, as well as on inflammatory markers.
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