Safety issues of raw milk: evaluation of bacteriological and physicochemical characteristics of human milk from a bank in a teaching hospital, focusing on Staphylococcus species
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Many infants are nurtured with milk supplied by human banks, whose bacteriological and physical-chemical profiles are a major issue. We investigated the bacteriological and physical-chemical characteristics, as well as genotypic and phenotypic and profiles of Staphylococcus species isolated from 240 samples of breast milk from a bank in a teaching hospital. Dornic acidity of milk revealed that 95.4% (229/240) had acceptable limits (< 8.0 oD). Caloric intake showed a wide variation in cream content (4%), fat (4%) and energy values (559.81 Kcal/L). Staphylococcus (105/186 or 56.5%) and Enterobacter (25/186 or 13.4%) were the most prevalent genera, although other microorganisms were identified, including Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (125/157 or 79.6%), vancomycin (115/157 or 73.2%), and cephalexin (112/157 or 71.3%) were the most effective antimicrobials. High resistance rates of isolates were found to penicillin G (141/157 or 89.8%), ampicillin (135/157 or 86%), and oxacillin (118/157 or 75.2%). Multidrug resistance to ≥ 3 antimicrobials occurred in 66.2% (123/186) of the isolates. Residues of microbial multiplication inhibitory substances were found in 85% (204/240) of samples. Among the coagulase-positive-CPS and negative-CoNS staphylococci, the mecA gene was detected in 53.3% (8/15) and 75% (30/40), respectively. Genes sea, seb and sec were detected in 20% (3/15) of CPS, while tsst-1 was detected in 13.34% (2/15). In addition, 13.3% (2/15) of S. aureus were toxin-producers. Genes sea, seb and sec were detected in 90% (36/40), 5% (2/40) and 15% (6/40) CoNS, respectively. Enterotoxin production was identified in 5% (2/40) of CoNS. The identification of multidrug-resistant bacteria, staphylococci species toxin-producers harboring methicillin-resistance genes, and residues of microbial multiplication inhibitory substances reinforce the need for a continuous vigilance of milk quality offered to infant consumption by human banks.
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