External factors determining breeding season in the red mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae) on the São Paulo State northern coast, Brazil
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This study evaluated the influence of the water and air temperatures, pluviosity and photoperiod on the breeding season of Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803), in Ubatuba littoral, southeastern Brazilian coast. Monthly collections were conducted out from January/95 to December/96 in an estuarine area from 23º29'10-23º29'45S to 45º09'10-45º10'00W. Water and air temperature variation showed the highest correlation coefficient with the frequency of ovigerous females, r² = 0.73 and 0.68, respectively. However, an analysis of the set of environmental variables, revealed the photoperiod as the factor of highest association with the ovigerous frequency (r² = 0.68). This degree of association allow us to suggest that the breeding season duration of G. cruentata might have some variations over different latitudes, and such results could be quite diverse in populations from different latitudes.