Electrolyte-Gated WO3 Transistors: Electrochemistry, Structure, and Device Performance
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Electrolyte-gated (EG) transistors, based on electrolyte gating media, are powerful device structures to modulate the charge carrier density of materials by orders of magnitude, at relatively low operating voltages (sub-2 V). Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a metal oxide semiconductor well investigated for applications in electrochromism, sensing, photocatalysis, and photoelectrochemistry. In this work, we report on EG transistors making use of mesoporous nanostructured WO3 thin films easily permeated by the electrolyte as the transistor channel and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([TFSI])-based ionic liquids as the gating media. The WO3 EG transistors operate at ca. 1 V. Using a combination of cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction, and transistor performance characterizations, complemented by spectroscopic (Raman and infrared) investigations, we correlate the metal oxidation state and the charge transport properties of the metal oxide, shedding light on the doping process in electrically biased WO3 nanostructured thin films exposed to electrolytes.