A trans10-18:1 enriched fraction from beef fed a barley grain-based diet induces lipogenic gene expression and reduces viability of HepG2 cells
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Beef fat is a natural source of trans (t) fatty acids, and is typically enriched with either t10-18:1 or t11-18:1. Little is known about the bioactivity of individual t-18:1 isomers, and the present study compared the effects of t9-18:1, cis (c)9-18:1 and trans (t)-18:1 fractions isolated from beef fat enriched with either t10-18:1 (HT10) or t11-18:1 (HT11). All 18:1 isomers resulted in reduced human liver (HepG2) cell viability relative to control. Both c9-18:1 and HT11were the least toxic, t9-18:1had dose response increased toxicity, and HT10 had the greatest toxicity (P<0.05). Incorporation of t18:1 isomers was 1.8-2.5 fold greater in triacylglycerol (TG) than phospholipids (PL), whereas δ9 desaturation products were selectively incorporated into PL. Culturing HepG2 cells with t9-18:1 and HT10 increased (P<0.05) the δ9 desaturation index (c9-16:1/16:0) compared to other fatty acid treatments. HT10 and t9-18:1 also increased expression of lipogenic genes (FAS, SCD1, HMGCR and SREBP2) compared to control (P<0.05), whereas c9-18:1 and HT11 did not affect the expression of these genes. Our results suggest effects of HT11 and c9-18:1 were similar to BSA control, whereas HT10 and t-9 18:1 (i.e. the predominant trans fatty acid isomer found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils) were more cytotoxic and led to greater expression of lipogenic genes.