Advance of soy commodity in the southern Amazonia with deforestation via PRODES and ImazonGeo: a moratorium-based approach
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The guidance on decision-making regarding deforestation in Amazonia has been efficient as a result of monitoring programs using remote sensing techniques. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the expansion of soybean farming in disagreement with the Soy Moratorium (SoyM) in the Amazonia biome of Mato Grosso from 2008 to 2019. Deforestation data provided by two Amazonia monitoring programs were used: PRODES (Program for Calculating Deforestation in Amazonia) and ImazonGeo (Geoinformation Program on Amazonia). For the identification of soybean areas, the Perpendicular Crop Enhancement Index (PCEI) spectral model was calculated using a cloud platform. To verify areas (polygons) of largest converted forest-soybean occurrences, the Kernel Density (KD) estimator was applied. Mann–Kendall and Pettitt tests were used to identify trends over the time series. Our findings reveal that 1,387,288 ha were deforested from August 2008 to October 2019 according to PRODES data, of which 108,411 ha (7.81%) were converted into soybean. The ImazonGeo data showed 729,204 hectares deforested and 46,182 hectares (6.33%) converted into soybean areas. Based on the deforestation polygons of the two databases, the KD estimator indicated that the municipalities of Feliz Natal, Tabaporã, Nova Ubiratã, and União do Sul presented higher occurrences of soybean fields in disagreement with the SoyM. The results indicate that the PRODES system presents higher data variability and means statistically superior to ImazonGeo.