Oral vaccination of piglets against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using silica SBA-15 as an adjuvant effectively reduced consolidation lung lesions at slaughter
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Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae is the main pathogen of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). Its controlling is challenging, and requires alternative strategies. This study aimed to develop an oral vaccine against M. hyopneumoniae using a nanostructured mesoporous silica (SBA-15) as an adjuvant, and compare its effect with an intramuscular (IM) commercial vaccine (CV). Fifty 24 day-old M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets composed five equal groups for different immunization protocols, consisting of a CV and/or oral immunization (OI). Control piglets did not receive any form of immunization. All piglets were challenged with M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 on D49 by tracheal route. IgA antibody response in the respiratory tract, bacterial shedding and serum IgG were evaluated. The piglets were euthanized on 28 (D77) and 56 (D105) days post-infection. Lung lesions were macroscopically evaluated; lung fragments and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) were collected for estimation of bacterial loads by qPCR and/or histopathology examination. All immunization protocols induced reduction on Mycoplasma-like macroscopic lung lesions. IgA Ab responses anti-M. hyopneumoniae, the expression of IL-4 cytokine and a lower expression of IL-8 were induced by CV and OI vaccines, while IgG was induced only by CV. Oral immunization using silica as a carrier-adjuvant can be viable in controlling M. hyopneumoniae infection.
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