Reusable rainwater quality at the ikorodu area of lagos, nigeria: Impact of first-flush and household treatment techniques
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Water scarcity is a huge problem in Africa, and hence rainwater becomes a crucial water source for fulfilling basic human needs. However, less attention has been given by African countries to the effectiveness of common rainwater treatments to ensure the population’s health. This study investigates the impact of different household treatment techniques (HHTTs), i.e. treatments by chlorine, boiling, alum, and a combination of alum and chlorine, on its storage system using a case study at the Ikorodu area of Lagos state, which is a rural area in Nigeria. The first-flush quality has been particularly studied here, where the microbial reduction through its practice has been examined from five different roofs. One of the investigated roofs was from a residential building, and four were constructed for the purpose of this study. In this study, the physical parameters (i.e. total suspended solids and turbidity) and the microbial parameters (i.e. total coliform and Escherichia coli) of the collected rainwater have been investigated. From the results, it has been observed that: (1) the water quality at the free phase zone is better than that at the tank’s bottom; (2) the combination of chlorine and alum gives the best rainwater quality after comparing the application of different HHTTs; and (3) a reduction of about 40% from the original contaminant load occurs in every 1 mm diversion.