Latin American registry of renal involvement in COVID-19 disease. The relevance of assessing proteinuria throughout the clinical course
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The Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension conducted a prospective cohort, multinational registry of Latin American patients with kidney impairment associated to COVID-19 infection with the objective to describe the characteristics of acute kidney disease under these circumstances. The study was carried out through open invitation in order to describe the characteristics of the disease in the region. Eight-hundred and seventy patients from 12 countries were included. Median age was 63 years (54-74), most of patients were male (68.4%) and with diverse comorbidities (87.2%). Acute kidney injury (AKI) was hospital-acquired in 64.7% and non-oliguric in 59.9%. Multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to COVID-19 and volume depletion were the main factors contributing to AKI (59.2% and 35.7% respectively). Kidney replacement therapy was started in 46.2%. Non-recovery of renal function was observed in 65.3%. 71.5% of patients were admitted to ICU and 72.2% underwent mechanical ventilation. Proteinuria at admission was present in 62.4% of patients and proteinuria during hospital-stay occurred in 37.5%. Those patients with proteinuria at admission had higher burden of comorbidities, higher baseline sCr, and MODS was severe. On the other hand, patients with de novo proteinuria had lower incidence of comorbidities and near normal sCr at admission, but showed adverse course of disease. COVID-19 MODS was the main cause of AKI in both groups. All-cause mortality of the general population was 57.4%, and it was associated to age, sepsis as cause of AKI, severity of condition at admission, oliguria, mechanical ventilation, non-recovery of renal function, in-hospital complications and hospital stay. In conclusion, our study contributes to a better knowledge of this condition and highlights the relevance of the detection of proteinuria throughout the clinical course.