Providing Flexibility in Distribution Systems by Electric Vehicles and Distributed Energy Resources in the Context of Technical Virtual Power Plants
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In the recent past structural changes in the operation and topology of the electrical system have occurred. These changes have coincided with the emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs). Relating to supply side technologies, distributed generation (DG) units have become increasingly common. The demand side has also seen the growth of new technological applications, including electric vehicles (EVs). These changes to the electrical system are being especially felt at the low voltage network level. Technical Virtual Power Plants (TVPPs) have been used to optimally schedule these DERs to increase the network flexibility and at the same time increasing the reliability and power quality of the network and this can bring economic benefits to both the TVPP operator and the customer. This paper develops a stochastic mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) optimization model to maximize the profit of a TVPP. The main objective of the TVPP is to increase operational flexibility of the low voltage network by aggregating DERs, including DG units, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning units, and EVs. The model is examined through the use of the IEEE 119-Bus test system. Results demonstrate that the inclusion of DG units and EVs, the profit of the TVPP increases by approximately 45% and system flexibility is increased while respecting the technical constraints of the network and the thermal comfort of the consumers.