Impact of Remote Monitoring Technologies for Assisting Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review
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Introduction: In Chile, 1 in 8 pregnant women of middle socioeconomic level has gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and in general, 5–10% of women with GDM develop type 2 diabetes after giving birth. Recently, various technological tools have emerged to assist patients with GDM to meet glycemic goals and facilitate constant glucose monitoring, making these tasks more straightforward and comfortable. Objective: To evaluate the impact of remote monitoring technologies in assisting patients with GDM to achieve glycemic goals, and know the respective advantages and disadvantages when it comes to reducing risk during pregnancy, both for the mother and her child. Methods: A total of 188 articles were obtained with the keywords “gestational diabetes mellitus,” “GDM,” “gestational diabetes,” added to the evaluation levels associated with “glucose level,” “glycemia,” “glycemic index,” “blood sugar,” and the technological proposal to evaluate with “glucometerm” “mobile application,” “mobile applications,” “technological tools,” “telemedicine,” “technovigilance,” “wearable” published during the period 2016–2021, excluding postpartum studies, from three scientific databases: PUBMED, Scopus and Web of Science. These were managed in the Mendeley platform and classified using the PRISMA method. Results: A total of 28 articles were selected after elimination according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main measurement was glycemia and 4 medical devices were found (glucometer: conventional, with an infrared port, with Bluetooth, Smart type and continuous glucose monitor), which together with digital technology allow specific functions through 2 identified digital platforms (mobile applications and online systems). In four articles, the postprandial glucose was lower in the Tele-GDM groups than in the control group. Benefits such as improved glycemic control, increased satisfaction and acceptability, maternal confidence, decreased gestational weight gain, knowledge of GDM, and other relevant aspects were observed. There were also positive comments regarding the optimization of the medical team’s time. Conclusion: The present review offers the opportunity to know about the respective advantages and disadvantages of remote monitoring technologies when it comes to reducing risk during pregnancy. GDM centered technology may help to evaluate outcomes and tailor personalized solutions to contribute to women’s health. More studies are needed to know the impact on a healthcare system.