Effectiveness of 1-Visit and 2-Visit Endodontic Retreatment of Teeth with Persistent/Secondary Endodontic Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial with 18 Months of Follow-up
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Introduction: This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the effectiveness of endodontic retreatment of teeth with posttreatment apical periodontitis (PTAP) performed in 1 visit versus 2 visits on the reduction of cultivable bacteria (colony-forming units [CFUs]), lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and the periapical lesion volume (mm3) after 18 months of follow-up. Methods: Forty patients diagnosed with PTAP were selected and randomly divided into the following 2 groups: 1-visit retreatment and 2-visit retreatment with the placement of calcium hydroxide medication for 14 days. Cone-beam computed tomographic scans were performed at 2 stages: preoperatively and after 18 months of follow-up. Samples were collected before and after root canal procedures. A chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate assay test was used to quantify endotoxins (EU/mL). LTA levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pg/mL). Culture techniques were used to determine cultivable bacteria by counting the CFU (CFU/mL). The volume of the periapical lesions at the onset of the trial and at the 18-month posttreatment follow-up was obtained by the ITK-SNAP program (Cognitica, Philadelphia, PA). Results: All samples showed baseline values greater than those collected after the retreatment protocol for all investigated parameters. A higher bacterial load and lower LTA level were found in the 2-visit group after the retreatment protocol (P < .05), with no statistical differences between the groups regarding endotoxin levels and periapical lesion volume (mm³) at the 18-month follow-up analyzed by cone-beam computed tomographic imaging (P > .05). Conclusions: Endodontic retreatment in 1 or 2 visits exhibited equally favorable periapical healing at 18 months, with no statistically significant differences between groups.
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