Antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cement modified by zinc oxide nanoparticles
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This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporated into self-cured glass ionomer cement (GIC) and light-cured resin-reinforced GIC on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The GICs, Fuji II (GC America) and Fuji II LC (GC America), were incorporated with nanoparticles at concentrations of 0%, 1%, and 2% by weight, and the biofilm maturation time was one and seven days. Circular specimens of each GIC type were prepared. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the number of colony forming units of S. mutans strain per milliliter. Morphology of the biofilm was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The data obtained for each GIC were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (α = 5%). For chemically activated GIC, no significant difference was observed in relation to the time of biofilm maturation (p = 0.744), concentration of nanoparticles (p = 0.966), and their interaction (p = 0.800). The results from analysis of GIC modified by light-polymerized resin showed that only of the maturing time significantly affected the number of adhered cells on the biofilm (p = 0.034, F = 4.778). The more mature the biofilm, higher the number of cells. SEM analysis showed no change in cell morphology in relation to the type of GIC, maturation time, and nanoparticles concentration. We conclude that the inclusion of zinc oxide nanoparticles at concentrations of 1% and 2% by weight into the GICs evaluated here, did not promote their antimicrobial activity against S. mutans.