Recuperação das propriedades físicas do solo por meio de adubos verdes, calagem, gesso, pastagem e espécies de ocorrência espontânea
Alternative titleRecovery of soil physical properties by green manure, liming, gypsum and pasture and spontaneous native species
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Inadequate usage can degrade natural resources, particularly soils. More attention has been paid to practices aiming at the recovery of degraded soils in the last years, e.g, the use of organic fertilizers, liming and introduction of species adapted to adverse conditions. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the recovery of physical properties of a Red Latosol (Oxisol) degraded by the construction of a hydroelectric power station. In the study area, a soil layer about 8m thick had been withdrawn by heavy machines leading not only to soil compaction, but resulting in high-degree degradation. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with nine treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of: 1- soil mobilization by tilling (to ensure the effect of mechanical mobilization in all treatments) without planting, but growth of spontaneous vegetation; 2- Black velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy); 3- Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) DC); 4- Liming + black velvet bean; 5- Liming + pigeonpea until 1994, when replaced by jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis); 6- Liming + gypsum + black velvet bean; 7- Liming + gypsum + pigeonpea until 1994, when replaced by jack bean; and two controls as reference: 8- Native Cerrado vegetation and 9- bare soil (no tilling and no planting), left under natural conditions and in this situation, without spontaneous vegetation. In treatments 1 through 7, the soil was tilled. Treatments were installed in 1992 and left unmanaged for seven years, until brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens) was planted in all plots in 1999. Seventeen years after implantation, the properties soil macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, bulk density and aggregate stability were assessed in the previously described treatments in the soil layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m, and soil Penetration Resistance and soil moisture in 0.00-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m. The plants were evaluated for: brachiaria dry matter and spontaneous growth of native tree species in the plots as of 2006. Results were analyzed by variance analysis and Tukey ́s test at 5 % for mean comparison. In all treatments, except for the bare soil (no recovery measures), ongoing recovery of the degraded soil physical properties was observed. Macroporosity, soil bulk density and total porosity were good soil quality indicators. The occurrence of spontaneous native species indicated the soil recovery process. The best adapted species was Machaerium acutifolium Vogel, with the largest number of plants and most advanced development; the dry matter production of B. decumbens in recovering soil was similar to normal conditions, evidencing soil recovery.