Nanostructured films employed as sensing units in an electronic tongue system
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Nanostructured films of lignin (macromolecule extracted from sugar cane bagasse), polypyrrole (conducting polymer) and bis butylimido perylene (organic dye) were used in the detection of trace levels of fluorine (from H2SiF6), chlorine (from NaCIO), Pb+2, Cu+2, and Cd+2 in aqueous solutions. Langmuir monolayers on ultrapure water were characterised by surface pressure-mean molecular area (II-A) isotherms. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films were transferred onto gold interdigitated electrodes and used as individual sensing units of an electronic tongue system. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were taken with the sensor immersed into aqueous solutions containing the ions described above in different molar concentrations. Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR) was employed to identify possible interactions between the LB films and the analytes in solution, and no significant changes could be observed in the FTIR spectra of BuPTCD and Ppy. Therefore, the results for lignin point to an interaction involving the electronic cloud of the phenyl groups with the metallic ions.