Nitric oxide production in blowfly hemolymph after yeast inoculation
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Although insects lack the adaptive immune response of the mammalians, they manifest effective innate immune responses that include both cellular and humoral components. Cellular responses are mediated by hemocytes and Immoral responses include the activation of proteolytic cascades that initiate many events, including NO production. In this work, we determined NO production in Chrysomya megaccphala hemolymph and hemocytes after yeast inoculation. Assays were performed with non-infected controls (NIL), saline-injected larvae (SIL) or larvae injected with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YIL). The hemolymph of injected groups was collected 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 or 48 h post-injection. NO levels in SIL were comparable to those measured in NIL until 12 h, which might be considered the basal production, increasing at 24 and 48 h post-injection, probably in response to the increased larval fragility after cuticle rupture. YIL exhibited significantly higher levels of NO than were found in other groups, peaking at 24 h. L-NAME and EDTA caused a significant reduction of NO production in YIL at this time, suggesting the activity of a Ca2+ -dependent NOS. Plasmatocytes and granular cells phagocytosed the yeasts. Plasmatocytes initiated the nodule formation and granular cells were the only hemocyte type to produce NO. These results permit us to conclude that yeasts induced augmented NO production in C. megacephala hemolymph and granular cells are the hemocyte type involved with the generation of this molecule. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.