Evaluation of transformation growth factor beta(1), interleukin-10, and interferon-gamma in male symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi
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The aims of this study were to evaluate the immunomodulatory role of TGF-beta(1), 1L-10, and INF-gamma in spleen and liver extracts and supernatant cultures of white spleen cells from male symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs, naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Thirty dogs from Aracatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic leishmaniosis area, were selected by positive ELISA serological reaction for Leishmania sp. and divided into two groups: asymptomatic (n=15) and symptomatic (n=15) consisting of animals with at least three characteristic signs (fever, dermatitis, lymphoadenopathy, onychogryphosis, weight loss, cachex a, locomotion problems, conjunctivitis, epistaxis, hepatosplenomegaly, edema, and apathy). After euthanasia, spleen and liver fragments were collected for ex vivo quantification of TGF-beta(1), IL-10, and INF-gamma. Naturally active in vitro produced TGF-beta(1) was also evaluated in spleen cell culture supernatant. Spleen and liver extract of asymptomatic dogs had higher mean TGF-beta(1) levels than symptomatic dogs. High concentrations of IL-10 were found in spleen, and mainly in liver extract of both groups. Higher INF-gamma concentrations were found in spleen extracts of symptomatic dogs, and in liver extracts of asymptomatic dogs. Extract of this cytokire was lower in spleen extract. Although INF-gamma is being produced in canine infection, mean levels of TGF-beta(1) and IL-10 from spleen and liver extracts were quantitatively much higher; suggesting that immune response in both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs A as predominantly type Th2. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.