EQCM study during lithium insertion/deinsertion processes in Nb2O5 films prepared by polymeric precursor method
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The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) technique was used to study two chemically distinct Nb2O5 electrochromic thin films (one pure and the other lithium-doped) during the lithium electroinsertion reaction. In the initial cycles, the electrode showed an irreversible mass variation greater than expected for Li+ insertion/deinsertion processes, which was attributed to the wettability effect (allied to the porous morphology) that emerged as the dominant process in apparent electrode mass changes. As the cycles progressed, the mass variation stabilized and the changes in apparent mass became reversible, showing a good correlation with the charge variations.The results generally indicated that the Li+ insertion/deinsertion process occurred more easily in the Nb2O5-doped film, which also displayed a greater capacity for Li+ insertion. However, a total mass/charge balance analysis revealed that the stoichiometry of the Li+ solid state insertion/deinsertion reaction was similar in the two electrodes under study. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.