Heparin, heparin plus ASA and dipyridamole, and arteriovenous fistula as adjuvant methods to prevent rethrombosis after venous thrombectomy. Experimental study in rabbits
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Venous rethrombosis following thrombectomy is a common event. The aim of the present study was to verify the action of heparin, heparin plus acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and dipyridamole, and of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in the prevention of this complication. Thrombosis was induced in 48 male rabbits by the injection of thrombin in a segment of the left jugular vein, in which the blood flow was arrested for 10 minutes. After 48 hours, the animals were randomly allocated into one of 4 groups of treatment: (1) control, (2) subcutaneous heparin (600 S.I. Units/kg - 8/8 hours), (3) heparin, in the same dose, plus ASA (10 mg/kg/once a day), and dipyridamole (0.5 mg/kg thrice a day), (4) an AVF was surgically constructed between the left carotid after and the left maxillar vein. After 30 minutes, thrombectomy was performed. The venous blood flow, the hematocrit, activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time tests were performed before, right after the thrombectomy and 48 hours after thrombectomy. Venography was performed after thrombectomy and at the end of the experiment. The animals were killed 48 hours after thrombectomy and the veins were examined macroscopically. Venous rethrombosis was significantly prevented only in the AVF group (9/12), when compared to control group (0/12), heparin group (1/12) and heparin plus antiaggregating agents group (2/12). These results validate further clinical and experimental investigations with the use of AVF to prevent rethrombosis after venous thrombectomy, when a reduction of venous flow is present.