Structural characterization of nuclear phenotypes during Scinax fuscovarius spermatogenesis (Anura, Hylidae)
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In anuran amphibian Scinax fuscovarius, the spermatogenesis occurs in structures called seminiferous loculi, in which germ epithelium is organized in spermatocysts. Each cyst contains cells in the same stage of cytodifferentiation. Characteristics of each cellular type and their groups made the identification and differentiation of the germ lineage cells possible. In the basis of the epithelium there are the spermatogonia I, the biggest cells and always associated with the Sertoli cell. After the phase of mitotic proliferation, the cysts containing variable number of spermatogonia II are originated, quite smaller and with cellular boundaries a little distinct. After differentiation and growth in volume, the spermatocytes I appear, the nuclei of which are spherical and with different degrees of compaction of the nuclear material. Starting the meiotic process, the spermatocytes II are originated, which by means of the second meiotic division become haploid cells, the spermatids I. These two last spermatocysts are very similar. In this phase, the cells will go through a prominent process of differentiation until they form the spermatids II, which are elongated and begin to be organized in bundles supported by prominent Sertoli cells. With the process of spermiogenesis, spermatozoa appear, usually observed in compact bundles with tails turned to the lumen and their heads fitted in their support cells. In more advanced stages, the spermatozoa can be observed free in the locular lumen, ready to follow the spermatic path.