Laryngeal electromyography: Technical features
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Laryngeal Electromyography (LEMG) is an auxiliary diagnostic method used for the comprehension and diagnosis of different neurological diseases that compromise laryngeal function. The most common LEMG technique is the percutaneous insertion of needle electrodes guided by surface anatomical references. We describe techniques for inserting needle electrodes into the tireoaritenoideus (TA), cricotireoideus (CT), cricoaritenoideus lateralis (CAL) and cricoaritenoideus posterioris (CAP) muscles; these are used at UNICAMP laryngology ambulatory; we discuss difficulties found and their proposed solutions. All patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngological, phonoaudiological and laryngeal endoscopy before LEMG. The CAP approach, by digital rotation of the thyroid cartilage was found to be the most difficult, followed by the CAL approach. TA and CT approaches gave no major problems, except with some older and obese patients. A significant complication of the TA approach via thyroid cartilage was a hematoma in one patient which partially obstructed the laryngeal lumen.