Experimental peri-implant tissue breakdown around different dental implant surfaces: Clinical and radiographic evaluation in dogs
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Purpose: Tissue reactions to 4 different implant surfaces were evaluated in regard to the development and progression of ligature-induced peri-implantitis. Materials and Methods: In 6 male mongrel dogs, a total of 36 dental implants with different surfaces (9 titanium plasma-sprayed, 9 hydroxyapatite-coated, 9 acid-etched, and 9 commercially pure titanium) were placed 3 months after mandibular premolar extraction. After 3 months with optimal plaque control, abutment connection was performed. Forty-five days later, cotton ligatures were placed around the implants to induce peri-implantitis. At baseline and 20, 40, and 60 days after placement, the presence of plaque, peri-implant mucosal redness, bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, mobility, vertical bone loss, and horizontal bone loss were assessed. Results: The results did not show significant differences among the surfaces for any parameter during the study (P > .05). All surfaces were equally susceptible to ligature-induced peri-implantitis over time (P < .001). Correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between width of keratinized tissue and vertical bone loss (r 2 = 0.81; P = .014) and between mobility and vertical bone loss (r 2 = 0.66; P = .04), both for the titanium plasma-sprayed surface. Discussion and Conclusions: The present data suggest that all surfaces were equally susceptible to experimental peri-implantitis after a 60-day period.
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