Composition of coriander essential oil from Brazil
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Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual and herbaceous plant, belonging to the Apiaceae family. Native of southern Europe and western Mediterranean region, this herb is cultivated world widely. This species, rich in linalool, has potential using as source of essential oil and as a medicinal plant. It has been used as analgesic, carminative, digestive, depurative, anti-rheumatic and antispasmodic agent. Its fruits (commonly called seeds) are used for flavoring candies, in cookery, perfumery, beverage and in tobacco industry. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the seed essential oil of this species grown in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in Lageado Experimental Farm, Department of Plant Production, Agronomical Sciences College, São Paulo State University. The fruits were harvest 108 days after sowing. The essential oils were extracted by hydro distillation, in Clevenger apparatus. 50 g of fruits were used in each extraction. Three extractions were performed during three hours. The essential oils were analyzed in Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (CG-MS, Shimadzu, QP-5000), equipped with DB-5 capillary column (30 m × 0,25 mm × 0,25 mm), split 1/20, injector for 240 C°, detector for 230 C°, dragged by gas He (1,7 mL/min), with programmed temperature for 40 C° (5 min)-150 C°, 4 C°/min; 150 C°-280 C°, 8 C°/min. The identification of the compounds was made by comparison of their spectra of masses with data from CG-MS (Nist 62 lib), literature references and retention index of Kovats. The 18 most important components were identified and quantified. The main components of the oil were linalool (77.48 %), γ-terpinene (4.64 %), α-pinene (3.97 %), limonene (1.28 %), geraniol (0.64 %) and 2-decenal (0.16 %).