Effect of prostaglandins on the production of H2O2 and cytokines that modulate the fungicidal activity of human monocytes against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
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Human monocytes lack fungicidal activity against high virulent strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, even after IFN-γ activation. However, monocytes treated with indomethacin (INDO) or INDO plus IFN-γ effectively killed this fungus, suggesting an inhibitory role of prostaglandins in this process. Thus, the purpose of this work was to test if this regulatory effect of prostaglandin was associated with alterations on H2O2 production and/or on modulatory cytokines levels, such as TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-6. Peripheral blood monocytes obtained from 10 healthy donors were incubated for 18 hours in the presence or absence of IFN-γ, INDO, or IFN-γ plus INDO, and further challenged with a high virulent strain of P. brasiliensis (Pb18) for 4 hours. Then, the monocytes cultures were evaluated for H2O2 release and fungicidal activity calculated by counting the colony forming units after plating. Moreover, on supernatants of the same cultures, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, and PGE2 concentrations were evaluated by ELISA. Monocytes treated with INDO or INDO plus IFN-γ presented higher fungicidal activity associated with the release of higher levels of H2O2 and TNF-α, but lesser levels of PGE2, when compared to nontreated cells. However, the levels of IL-10 and IL-6 were similar between treated and nontreated cells. The results suggest that human monocytes when challenged with high virulent strains of P. brasiliensis produce prostaglandins that inhibit the fungicidal activity of these cells by reducing H2O2 and TNF-α levels.