Comparison of manual versus sonic and ultrasonic toothbrushes: a review.
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PURPOSE: This review of the literature intends to evaluate the effect of brushes with high frequency motion when compared with manual toothbrushes regarding the indices of plaque and gingival bleeding. METHODS: Patients presenting gingivitis and/or chronic periodontitis were evaluated in addition to patients having osseointegrated implants and fixed orthodontic appliances. Pertinent literature was reviewed to select articles according to previously defined inclusion criteria. RESULTS: In the assessed studies results showed significant decreases in plaque and gingival indices by utilization of both types of brushes. However, in the selected studies where sonic brushes were tested in orthodontic and dental implant patients there was a more significant decrease in the indices. Furthermore, there was no indication of gingival recession attributed to product use. CONCLUSION: Future studies with a more homogeneous methodology and better experiment designs will be needed.