Melatonin effects on macrophage in diabetic rats and the maternal hyperglycemic implications for newborn rats
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The modulatory effects of melatonin (MLT) on maternal and fetal macrophages in diabetic rats and the repercussion of maternal hyperglycemia on fetus-placenta parameters were studied. This was achieved by determining maternal and fetal blood glucose, weight and superoxide release by macrophages. Placental weight, protein, DNA and RNA concentration were also verified. Superoxide levels in macrophages isolated from pregnant healthy rats were higher than those obtained from diabetic animals. Melatonin increased significantly in the macrophages of control animals (18.7 ± 2.8 with MLT compared to 14.2 ± 1.6 without MLT) but decreased with melatonin stimulation in diabetic rats (8.8 ± 1.4 with MLT compared to 12.9 ± 2.1 without MLT). Melatonin significantly decreased superoxide levels in newborns of diabetic mothers (7.3 ± 3.4) compared to those of healthy (14.6 ± 3.5) mothers. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in newborn rats of diabetic mothers (108.3 ± 7.8) compared to blood glucose levels in newborn control rats (81.2 ± 10.7). Body weight was significantly higher (p <0.05) in the offspring of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. No statistical difference (p> 0.05) was observed in the placenta weight, total protein concentration and DNA of rats. The RNA concentration was significantly lower (p <0.05) in the placentas of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes (156.1 ± 71.8), when compared to the concentration of RNA in the placentas of control rats (239.5 ± 77.3). In conclusion, maternal hyperglycemia modified the fetus-placental parameters and melatonin modulated the macrophages activation in maternal and fetal diabetic rats.