Annona sp: Plants with multiple applications as alternative medicine - a review
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Annona species have been used as a natural remedy for a variety of illnesses with antiparasitic, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, antiulcer, sedative, analgesic, hypotensive, and vermifugal effects. These properties are due to the presence of a number of bioactive compounds on the leaves, fruit, seeds, and stem. The aim of this review is to show the main species of Annona, their medicinal properties and the chemical constituents that may be related to these effects. In the leaves it is possible to find acetogenins, annopentocins A, B, and C, cis- and trans-annomuricin-D-ones, goniothalamicin, arianacin, and javoricin, related to anticancer properties. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, also found in the leaves mediates antidiabetic and antioxidative effects. In the fruit are found annonaine, nornuciferine and asimilobine, associated to antidepressive effects. In the seeds are found muricatetrocin A and muricatetrocin B, longifolicin, corossolin, corossolone, uvarigrandin A, bullatacin, squamotatin. These acetogenins are associated with anticancer effects. Cyclosquamosin B, quercetin, and cyclosquamosin from the seeds have respectively vasorelaxant, antithyroidal and, antiinflammatory activity. In the stem parts there are several components as N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-p-coumaroyltyramine, and N-trans-caffeoyltyramine, lignans, syringaresinol, syringaldehyde, beta-sitosterol and beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside which exhibit antiplatelet aggregation activity. Copaene, patchoulane, 1H-cycloprop (e) azulene and kaur-16-en-19-oic acid found in the barks exhibit significant central as well as peripheral analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The properties of the biological compounds in Annona species support information that may provide validation for its medicinal uses, but further studies should be performed to establish ideal and safe doses of consumption to ensure the effectiveness of the benefits. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.
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