Cardiac remodeling induced by smoking: Concepts, relevance, and potential mechanisms
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Cardiac or ventricular remodeling is characterized by molecular, cellular, and interstitial alterations that lead to changes in heart size, mass, geometry and function in response to a given insult. Currently, tobacco smoke exposure is recognized as one of these insults. Indeed, tobacco smoke exposure induces the enlargement of the left-sided cardiac chambers, myocardial hypertrophy, and ventricular dysfunction. Potential mechanisms for these alterations include hemodynamic and neurohormonal changes, oxidative stress, inflammation, nitric oxide bioavailability, matrix metalloproteinases and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. This review will focus on the concepts, relevance, and potential mechanisms of cardiac remodeling induced by tobacco smoke. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.
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