Begomovirus populations in single plants are complex and may include both well-adapted and poorly-adapted viruses

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2022-11-07

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Elsevier B.V.

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Begomoviruses (single-stranded DNA plant viruses transmitted by whiteflies) are economically important pathogens causing epidemics worldwide. Tomato-infecting begomoviruses emerged in Brazil in the 1990 ' s following the introduction of Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1. It is believed that these viruses evolved from indigenous viruses infecting non-cultivated hosts. However, tomato-infecting viruses are rarely found in non-cultivated hosts, and vice-versa. It is possible that viral populations in a given host are composed primarily of viruses which are well adapted to this host, but also include a small proportion of poorly adapted viruses. Following transfer to a new host, the composition of the viral population would shift rapidly, with the viruses which are better adapted to the new host becoming predominant. To test this hypothesis, we collected tomato and Sida plants growing next to each other at two locations in 2014 and 2018. Total DNA was extracted from tomato and Sida samples from each location and year and used as a template for high-throughput sequencing. Reads were mapped following a highly stringent set of criteria. For the 2014 samples, >98% of the Sida reads mapped to Sida micrantha mosaic virus (SiMMV), but 0.1% of the reads mapped to tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV). Conversely, >99% of the tomato reads mapped to ToSRV, with 0.18% mapping to SiMMV. For the 2018 samples, 41% of the Sida reads mapped to three Sida-adapted viruses and 0.1% of the reads mapped to ToSRV, while 99.9% of the tomato reads mapped to ToSRV. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that viral populations in a single plant are composed primarily of the virus that is better adapted to the host but also include a small proportion of viruses that are poorly adapted.

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Inglês

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Virus Research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, v. 323, 9 p., 2023.

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