HSP70 as a Biomarker: an Excellent Tool in Environmental Contamination Analysis—a Review
Moreira-de-Sousa, Cristina [UNESP]
de Souza, Raphael Bastão [UNESP]
Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia [UNESP]
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HSP70 are the most studied proteins and among all HSPs are highlighted due to their high sensitivity and abundance, as well as being ubiquitously expressed and associated with all subcellular compartments. For this reason, this work specifically approaches HSP70, since its multiple responsibilities actively participate in the homeostasis of all living organisms and its rapid response to any agent stressor is efficient in assessing environmental pollution/contamination processes. HSP70, heat shock proteins thus classified according to their molecular weight of 70 kDa, are proteins that have maintained their structures conserved from the most primitive to the most complex organisms. They belong to the chaperone family, which comprises proteins with different structures that share a common function. In general, they participate in the process of correct folding of proteins; however, it has been described that they also participate in numerous complex processes of metabolism; its synthesis can usually be increased or decreased under stressful conditions. The classical activation of this protein is due to the increase in environmental temperature, but several factors can trigger the gene expression process of this protein, not only as the increase or decrease of heat or cold, but also the exposure to substances of a chemical nature, physical or biological (metals, metabolism inhibitors, chemotherapeutic agents, inflammatory and infectious processes, processes leading to cell death, the cycle of cell division itself and growth factors, cellular mechanisms considered normal). Given the broad repercussion of these proteins in metabolic processes and in organism physiology, numerous studies have evaluated the HSP70 production under adverse conditions, highlighting their connection to pollution and environmental contamination. Hence, this work aimed to literature review the vast array of HSP70 metabolic functions and its possible applications as biomarkers in the evaluation of contaminated environments by compiling the different physiological responses observed in various animal groups exposed to different conditions.
Bioindicators, Cellular stress, Environmental stress, Heat shock proteins, Molecular biomarker
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, v. 229, n. 8, 2018.