Total evidence phylogenetic analysis reveals polyphyly of Anostomoides and uncovers an unexpectedly ancient genus of Anostomidae fishes (Characiformes)

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2022-02-01

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Oxford Univ Press

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The nearly 150 species of Anostomidae comprise one of the most diverse and taxonomically dynamic families of Neotropical freshwater fishes. A recent revision of the enigmatic and poorly diagnosed genus Anostomoides demonstrated that it contains two valid species, each with complicated taxonomic histories; however, that study did not address their phylogenetic placement. Herein, we integrate molecular and morphological data to demonstrate their distant evolutionary relationship, and thus the polyphyly of Anostomoides. While we reconstruct one of the species in a previously hypothesized placement within a clade also containing Laemolyta, Rhytiodus and Schizodon, the other represents a morphologically and genetically distinctive lineage that diverged early in the history of the family. We describe and illustrate the osteology of this remarkable species, discuss the evolutionary implications of its unique suite of features, and use those characteristics to diagnose a new genus that evolved independently of all other known members of the family for approximately 37 Myr.

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Inglês

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Zoological Journal Of The Linnean Society. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press, v. 194, n. 2, p. 626-669, 2022.

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