Associations Between Sex Hormone Levels and Periodontitis in Men: Results From NHANES III

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Steffens, Joao Paulo [UNESP]
Wang, Xiaoshan
Starr, Jacqueline R.
Spolidorio, Luis Carlos [UNESP]
Van Dyke, Thomas E.
Kantarci, Alpdogan

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Amer Acad Periodontology


Background: Sex hormones are linked to inflammation and bone turnover. The goal of this study is to explore the association between sex hormone levels and periodontitis in men using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods: Data from 755 men (aged >= 30 years), including serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, and androstenediol glucuronide, were analyzed. Calculated bioavailable testosterone (CBT) and estradiol-to-testosterone ratio were calculated. Periodontitis was defined using the latest classification of extent and severity of periodontitis for NHANES data (>= 2 interproximal sites with >= 3 mm attachment loss, >= 2 interproximal sites with probing depth [PD] >= 4 mm not on the same tooth, or one site with PD >= 5 mm). Sex hormones were evaluated as categorized and continuous variables. Correlations between the presence and severity of periodontitis and levels of sex hormones were determined and expressed as odds ratios (ORs). Results: When adjusted for confounding factors, high total testosterone (TT) and CBT levels correlated with both the prevalence (OR [95% confidence interval (CI)], 2.1 [1 to 4.5] and 3.9 [1 to 14.8], respectively) and severity (OR [95% CI], 2.1 [1 to 4.3] and 3.4 [1.2 to 9.8]) of periodontitis. When continuous variables were used, the ORs (95% CIs) for presence and severity of periodontitis were 1.4 (0.6 to 3.3) and 1.5 (0.6 to 3.6) for TT and 1.3 (0.9 to 1.9) and 1.3 (0.9 to 1.8) for CBT, respectively. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the existence of an association of periodontitis with sex hormone levels, especially testosterone, in men.



Androgens, cross-sectional studies, gonadal steroid hormones, inflammation, periodontitis, testosterone

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Journal Of Periodontology. Chicago: Amer Acad Periodontology, v. 86, n. 10, p. 1116-1125, 2015.