Bioaccumulation of chlorinated pesticides and PCBs in the tropical freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus: Histopathological, physiological, and immunological findings
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Miranda, A. L.
Randi, M. A. F.
Menezes, Manoel Lima de [UNESP]
Ribeiro, C. A. Oliveira
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Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd
For assessing the impact of chlorinated compounds, such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorotriazines (atrazine, simazine), and chlorinated phenylureas (diuron), on the Ponta Grossa lake South of Brazil, ten freshwater trahira fish (Hoplias malabaricus) were collected in October 2005. The contamination status was evaluated by the energy budget and various histopathological markers. The results showed detectable amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the liver and muscle; the bioaccumulation was higher in the liver than in the muscle. The presence of some banned pesticides, such as hexachlorobenzene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, in the liver suggests an acute exposure to these compounds. Some physiological disturbances and morphological damages found in the liver of H. malabaricus were associated with chlorinated-compound bioaccumulation. The most important alterations in the liver were lesions such as fibrosis, large necrosis area, leukocyte infiltration, and the absence of melanomacrophages (MM). Individuals containing higher concentrations of pesticides, such as aldrin, alachlor, and dichloroaniline (a metabolite of diuron), showed the nonoccurrence of MM in the liver. These data suggest an immunosuppression in the individuals from Ponta Grossa Lake after exposure to POPs. According to the present data, the POPs found in the studied site are bioavailable, induce severe damages in target organs such as the liver, and can disturb the immune system of the trahira. This is the first study of POPs in the Parana state, and one among the few studies in the south of Brazil. The present data suggest and motivate further chemical and biomonitoring studies in freshwater ecosystems in the south of Brazil. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
POPs, biomonitoring, biomarkers, Hoplias malabaricus, freshwater ecosystem
Environment International. Oxford: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd, v. 34, n. 7, p. 939-949, 2008.