Nanotechnology-based controlled release of sustainable fertilizers. A review


The rising population is increasing food demand, yet actual crop production is limited by the poor efficiency of classical fertilizers. In particular, only about 40–60% of fertilizer nitrogen, 15–20% of phosphorus and 50–60% of potassium are used by crop plants, the rest ending polluting the environment. Nanofertilizers are promising alternatives. Here, we review plant nutrients, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles, encapsulation of nanoparticles in fertilizers, and effect on plants.



Green synthesis and precision agriculture, Nanofertilizer, Nanotechnology, Sustainable agriculture, ZnO nanoparticle

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Environmental Chemistry Letters.