Influence of temperature and exercise on growth performance, muscle, and adipose tissue in pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus)

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dos Santos, Vander Bruno
de Oliveira, Marcelo Wendeborn Miranda
Salomão, Rondinelle Artur Simões [UNESP]
Santos, Rosemeire de Souza
de Paula, Tassiana Gutierrez [UNESP]
Silva, Maeli Dal Pai [UNESP]
Mareco, Edson Assunção
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature and swimming exercise on fish growth in pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Pacus weighing 0.9 – 1.9 g and 2.7 – 4.2 cm in standard length were cultivated at an initial density of 120 fish m−3 in 3 recirculation systems containing 6 water tanks at a volume of 0.5 m3 each at temperatures of 24, 28 and 32 °C. At each temperature, three tanks were modified to generate exercise activity in the specimens and force the fish to swim under a current speed of 27.5 cm s−1. At the end of the experiment, the following metrics were evaluated: fish performance, morphometry (length, width, height and perimeter in different body positions), and the diameter and density of muscle and subcutaneous ventral adipose tissues. At 28 °C, pacus were both heavier and had greater weight gain after 240 days of cultivation. Additionally, exercise improved the feed conversion. An increase of 4 °C (30 °C) did not provide any improvement in the performance of the fish. However, swimming exercise improved the performance of pacus, providing increases of 38% and a 15% improvement in feed conversion. Both temperature and exercise influenced the body morphology (especially in the caudal region) and the cellularity of white and red muscle fibers and adipocytes.
Adipocyte, Feed conversion, Hypertrophy, Morphology, Muscle fibers, Water flow
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Journal of Thermal Biology, v. 69, p. 221-227.