Bioconcentration and toxicological impacts of fipronil and 2,4-D commercial formulations (single and in mixture) in the tropical fish, Danio rerio.

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The insecticide fipronil and the herbicide 2,4-D are the most applied pesticides in sugarcane crops leading to aquatic contamination. The whole-body bioconcentration of fipronil and 2,4-D, single and in mixture, was evaluated in Danio rerio after 96-h exposure. The activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase(GST) in whole body and in the gills and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in muscle were determined. The gill histopathology and the morphology of the pavement (PVC) and the mitochondria-rich(MRC) cells at gill surface were analyzed. Bioconcentration occurred after exposure to fipronil (2.69 L kg−1) and 2,4-D (1.73 L kg−1) single and in mixture of fipronil (3.10 L kg−1) and 2,4-D (1.27 L kg−1). Whole-body CAT activity was unchanged, and its activity decreased in the gills after exposure to fipronil and increased after exposure to 2,4-D and mixture. GST and AChE increased after single exposure to each pesticide and mixture of both. Fish exposed to mixture increased the MRC fractional area (MRCFA) which suggested possible ionic regulation disturbance and reduced the microridge of the PVC surface. Synergistic interactions occurred in the CAT activity and MRCFA after exposure to mixture of pesticides. The results indicate that the recommended application dose of fipronil and 2,4-D, single or in mixture, for sugarcane crops affects this fish species altering its homeostasis.




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Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 29, n. 8, p. 11685-11698, 2022.

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