Agronomic effectiveness of cationic phosphate impurities present in superphosphate fertilizers as affected by soil pH

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2006-10-01

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The general concept that low-water-soluble phosphorus (P) fertilizers should be more agronomically effective when applied to acidic soils was developed based on sources containing mainly calcium (Ca)-P compounds, but it may not hold true for sources with different chemical composition. To obtain information related to this issue, two important iron (Fe)-potassium (K)-P compounds present in superphosphates [Fe 3 KH 8 (PO 4 ) 6·6H 2 O, H8, and Fe 3 KH 14 (PO 4 ) 8·4H 2 O, H14] were prepared and characterized. These P sources were used to provide 30 and 60 mg P kg -1 as neutral ammonium citrate (NAC)+H 2 O-soluble P. Reagent-grade monocalcium phosphate (MCP) was used as a standard P source with high water solubility with an additional rate of 120 mg P kg -1 included. Also, mixtures of both Fe-K-P compounds and MCP were prepared to provide 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the total P as MCP. All sources were applied to a clayey loamy acid soil (pH 5.3) classified as Rhodic Kanhapludult. The soil was incubated at two rates (0 and 10 g kg -1 ) of lime, which resulted in pH 5.4 and 6.8. Upland rice was cultivated to maturity. The H14 compound confirmed to be a highly effective source of P for the rice plants at both soil pH, as opposed to the H8, which was poorly effective when applied alone. When mixed with water-soluble P (WSP), the H8 was able to provide P to the plants with the maximum yield of upland rice reached with 54.8 and 80.5% of WSP for pH 5.4 and 6.8, respectively. The high agronomic performance of the H14 compound clearly indicates that this low-water-soluble P source cannot be deemed as ineffective at high soil pH. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, v. 37, n. 13-14, p. 2057-2067, 2006.

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