Dynamics of the role of LacMeta laccase in the complete degradation and detoxification of malachite green


Laccases highlight for xenobiotic bioremediation, as well as application in the fine chemical, textile, biofuel and food industries. In a previous work, we described the preliminary characterization of laccase LacMeta, a promising enzyme for the bioremediation of dyes, able to decolorization malachite green (MG), trypan blue, methylene blue. Here we demonstrate that LacMeta is indeed suitable for the complete degradation and detoxification of MG dye, not just for its discoloration, since some works show false positives due to the formation of colorless intermediates such as leucomalachite. The optimal pH and temperature parameters of LacMeta were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively (MG as substrate). LacMeta was tolerant of up to 10 mmol L− 1 EDTA (82%) and up to 5% (V/V) acetone (91%) and methanol (71%), while SDS promoted severe inhibition. For ions, a high tolerance to cobalt, zinc, manganese, and calcium (10 mmol L− 1) was also observed (> 90%). Even under high-salinity conditions (1 mol L− 1 NaCl), the residual bleaching activity of the dye remained at 61%. Furthermore, the bleaching product of MG did not inhibit the germination of sorghum and tomato seeds and was inert to the vegetative structures of the germinated seedlings. Additionally, this treatment effectively reduced the cytotoxic effect of the dye on microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Azospirillum brasilense), which can be explained by H-NMR spectral analysis results since LacMeta completely degraded the peak signals corresponding to the aromatic rings in the dye, demonstrating extreme efficiency in the bioremediation of the xenobiotic at high concentrations (50 mg L− 1).



Detoxification, Halotolerance, Triphenylmethane dye, Xenobiotics

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World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, v. 39, n. 5, 2023.