Distribuição, tamanho populacional, hábitat e conservação do bicudinho-do-brejo Stymphalornis acutirostris Bornschein, Reinert e Teixeira, 1995 (Thamnophilidae)

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2007-12-01

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The Marsh Antwren (Stymphalornis acutirostris) is restricted to the lowlands between Antonina Bay, in the coastal plain of the state of Paraná, and Itapocu river, in the northern coastal plain of the state of Santa Catarina (from 0 to c. 5 m a.s.l.). It doesn't occur continuously in this region, being found in eight populations that span over an total area of about 6,060 ha (= area of occupancy; 4,856.67 in Paraná and c. 1,200 in Santa Catarina). Nine habitat types used by the Marsh Antwren were defined, based on vegetation physiognomy, localization, dominancy of botanical species, dominant life-form and history of the region. Five of these are herbaceous (marshes), while four have an upper arboreal stratum and an herbaceous lower stratum with marsh plants. According to the classification criteria of the Brazilian vegetation proposed by the Radambrasil Project, they were classified as Pioneering Formation of Fluvial Influence, Pioneering Formation of Fluvial-marine Influence, and/or Pioneering Formation of Lacustrine Influence. They occur as patches or narrow strips ranging from 0.001 to 203.0 ha in the state of Paraná. They are found mainly in the interior of bays, in the lower courses of rivers that drain into bays, in alluvial plains, and between sand dunes in the coastal plain. Characteristic herbaceous species are cattail (Typha domingensis), bulrush (Scirpus californicus), Crinum salsum, Panicum sp. cf. P. mertensii, saw grass (Cladium mariscus) and Fuirena spp. Hibiscus pernambucensis is the characteristic bush species, and Calophyllum brasiliense, Tabebuia cassinoides, Annona glabra and Laguncularia racemosa are the characteristic arboreal species. The Marsh Antwren lives in herbaceous vegetation, but also uses bushes and branches of small tress. It has low flight capacity and a single flight of more than 25 m was never recorded. Territories of 0.25 ha were estimated in one kind of habitat (tidal marsh) (= 8 individuals per hectare) and of 3.2 ha in another one (saw grass marsh) (= 0.62 individual per hectare). The global population estimate is of about 17,700 mature individuals (13,700 in Paraná and 4,000 in Santa Catarina). The species is really under threat of extinction, mainly because of it's restricted geographical distribution and habitat loss by human activities and biological contamination caused by invasion of exotic grasses (Urochloa arrecta and Brachiaria mutica).

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Area of occupancy, Conservation, Geographic distribution, Habitat, Marsh Antwren, Population, Stymphalornis acutirostris, Territory, alluvial plain, biological invasion, classification, coastal plain, geographical distribution, grass, habitat conservation, habitat type, habitat use, herb, human activity, lowland environment, marsh, passerine, population estimation, population size, spatial distribution, territory, Antonina Bay, Brazil, Itapocu River, Parana, Santa Catarina, South America, Annona, Annona glabra, Antonina, Brachiaria, Brachiaria mutica, Calophyllum, Calophyllum brasiliense, Cladium mariscus, Crinum, Fuirena, Hibiscus, Hibiscus pernambucensis, Laguncularia racemosa, Panicum sp., Poaceae, Scirpus californicus, Tabebuia, Tabebuia cassinoides, Thamnophilidae, Typha, Typha domingensis, Urochloa arrecta

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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, v. 15, n. 4, p. 493-519, 2007.

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