Anthelmintic effect of plant extracts containing condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on Caenorhabditis elegans, and their antioxidant capacity

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Katiki, Luciana M.
Ferreira, Jorge F.S.
Gonzalez, Javier M.
Zajac, Anne M.
Lindsay, David S.
Chagas, Ana Carolina S.
Amarante, Alessandro F.T. [UNESP]

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Although tannin-rich forages are known to increase protein uptake and to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing ruminants, most published research involves forages with condensed tannins (CT), while published literature lacks information on the anthelmintic capacity, nutritional benefits, and antioxidant capacity of alternative forages containing hydrolyzable tannins (HT). We evaluated the anthelmintic activity and the antioxidant capacity of plant extracts containing either mostly CT, mostly HT, or both CT and HT. Extracts were prepared with 70% acetone, lyophilized, redissolved to doses ranging from 1.0mg/mL to 25mg/mL, and tested against adult Caenorhabditis elegans as a test model. The extract concentrations that killed 50% (LC50) or 90% (LC90) of the nematodes in 24h were determined and compared to the veterinary anthelmintic levamisole (8mg/mL). Extracts were quantified for CT by the acid butanol assay, for HT (based on gallic acid and ellagic acid) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total phenolics, and for their antioxidant activity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Extracts with mostly CT were Lespedeza cuneata, Salix X sepulcralis, and Robinia pseudoacacia. Extracts rich in HT were Acer rubrum, Rosa multiflora, and Quercus alba, while Rhus typhina had both HT and CT. The extracts with the lowest LC50 and LC90 concentrations, respectively, in the C. elegans assay were Q. alba (0.75 and 1.06mg/mL), R. typhina collected in 2007 (0.65 and 2.74mg/mL), A. rubrum (1.03 and 5.54mg/mL), and R. multiflora (2.14 and 8.70mg/mL). At the doses of 20 and 25mg/mL, HT-rich, or both CT- and HT-rich, extracts were significantly more lethal to adult C. elegans than extracts containing only CT. All extracts were high in antioxidant capacity, with ORAC values ranging from 1800μmoles to 4651μmoles of trolox equivalents/g, but ORAC did not correlate with anthelmintic activity. The total phenolics test had a positive and highly significant (r=0.826, p≤0.01) correlation with total hydrolyzable tannins. Plants used in this research are naturalized to the Appalachian edaphoclimatic conditions, but occur in temperate climate areas worldwide. They represent a rich, renewable, and unexplored source of tannins and antioxidants for grazing ruminants, whereas conventional CT-rich forages, such as L. cuneata, may be hard to establish and adapt to areas with temperate climate. Due to their high in vitro anthelmintic activity, antioxidant capacity, and their adaptability to non-arable lands, Q. alba, R. typhina, A. rubrum, and R. multiflora have a high potential to improve the health of grazing animals and must have their anthelmintic effects confirmed in vivo in both sheep and goats. © 2012.



Anthelmintic plants, Antioxidant capacity, C. elegans, Condensed tannins, Hydrolyzable tannins, Nematodes, ORAC, Small ruminants, Total phenolics, Tree tannins, Acer rubrum extract, acetone, ellagic acid, gallic acid, Lespedeza cuneata extract, levamisole, phenol derivative, plant extract, Quercas alba extract, Rhus typhina extract, Robinia pseudoacacia extract, Rosa multiflora extract, Salix X sepulcralis extract, tannin derivative, trolox C, unclassified drug, Acer rubrum, anthelmintic activity, antioxidant activity, Caenorhabditis elegans, concentration (parameters), controlled study, high performance liquid chromatography, in vitro study, LC 50, LC 90, lespedeza cuneata, medicinal plant, nonhuman, plant leaf, Quercas alba, Rhus typhina, Robinia pseudoacacia, Rosa multiflora, Salix X sepulcralis, Animalia, Capra hircus, Lespedeza cuneata, Nematoda, Ovis aries, Quercus alba, Salix x sepulcralis

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Veterinary Parasitology, v. 192, n. 1-3, p. 218-227, 2013.