Sublethal concentrations of acetylcarvacrol affect reproduction and integument morphology in the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae)

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de Oliveira, Marcos Vinícius Silva
Konig, Isaac Filipe Moreira
Reis, Aline Chaves
Silva, Larissa
Peconick, Ana Paula
Thomasi, Sérgio Scherrer
Lima-De-Souza, José Ribamar
Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel [UNESP]
Remedio, Rafael Neodini

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Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), also known as the brown dog tick, is among the main tick species involved in the transmission of pathogens to humans and other animals and, therefore, the target of numerous control methods. However, due to the disadvantages of synthetic acaricides, the use of alternative products such as plant derivatives has been encouraged. This study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal potential of acetylcarvacrol and to determine its efficacy at sublethal doses for the control of R. sanguineus s.l. female ticks. In addition, as acetylcarvacrol was applied topically, morphological alterations in the integument were assessed. Acetylation of carvacrol was performed by reaction with acetic anhydride in a sodium hydroxide solution, being confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The lethal concentration for 50 and 90% (LC50 and LC90) of unfed ticks and the efficacy of acetylcarvacrol in engorged females were determined after the Adult Immersion Test (AIT). For the evaluation of effects of acetylcarvacrol in the integument, routine histological techniques were employed after the AIT. The LC50 and LC90 in unfed females were 2.8 and 7.2 μL/mL, respectively. Regarding reproductive performance, after treatment with 8.0 μL/mL acetylcarvacrol 90.9% control was achieved, as ticks showed the lowest egg production index (EPI), hatching rate (HR), and fecundity rate (FR). In the integument, considerable morphological alterations were observed both in cuticle and epithelium. Thus, acetylcarvacrol affected R. sanguineus s.l. external coating and reproduction when applied at sublethal concentrations, probably contributing to a long-term control.



Acaricide, Alloscutum, Carvacrol, Control, Reproductive fitness

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Experimental and Applied Acarology.