Cover crops affect the partial nitrogen balance in a maize-forage cropping system

dc.contributor.authorRocha, Kassiano F. [UNESP]
dc.contributor.authorSouza, Murilo de [UNESP]
dc.contributor.authorAlmeida, Danilo S. [UNESP]
dc.contributor.authorChadwick, David R.
dc.contributor.authorJones, Davey L.
dc.contributor.authorMooney, Sacha J.
dc.contributor.authorRosolem, Ciro A. [UNESP]
dc.contributor.institutionUniversidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
dc.contributor.institutionBangor Univ
dc.contributor.institutionUniv Western Australia
dc.contributor.institutionUniv Nottingham
dc.description.abstractPart of the nitrogen (N) fertilizer applied to crops is lost to the environment, contributing to global warming, eutrophication, and groundwater contamination. However, low N supply stimulates soil organic N turnover and carbon (C) loss, since the soil N/C ratio in soil is quasi-constant, ultimately resulting in land degradation. Grasses such as ruzigrass (Urochloa ruziziensis) grown as winter pasture or a cover crop in rotation with maize (Zea mays) can reduce N leaching, however, this may induce N deficiency and depress yields in the subsequent maize crop. Despite the potential to decrease N loss, this rotation may negatively affect the overall N balance of the cropping system. However, this remains poorly quantified. To test this hypothesis, maize, fertilized with zero to 210 kg N ha(-1), was grown after ruzigrass, palisade grass (Urochloa brizanta) and Guinea grass (Pannicum maximum), and the N inputs, outputs and partial N balance determined. Despite the intrinsically poor soil quality associated with the tropical Ultisol, maize grown after the grasses was efficient in acquiring N, resulting in a negative N balance even when 210 kg ha(-1) of N was applied after Guinea grass. Losses by leaching, N2O emission and NH3 volatilization did not exceed 13.8 kg ha(-1) irrespective of the grass type. Despite a similar N loss among grasses, Guinea grass resulted in a higher N export in the maize grain due to a higher yield, resulting in a more negative N balance. Soil N depletion can lead to C loss, which can result in land degradation.en
dc.description.affiliationSao Paulo State Univ, Sch Agr Sci, Dept Crop Sci, Univ Av 3780, BR-18610034 Botucatu, SP, Brazil
dc.description.affiliationBangor Univ, Sch Nat Sci, Bangor LL57 2UW, Gwynedd, Wales
dc.description.affiliationUniv Western Australia, UWA Sch Agr & Environm, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
dc.description.affiliationUniv Nottingham, Fac Sci, Div Agr & Environm Sci, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 SRB, Leics, England
dc.description.affiliationUnespSao Paulo State Univ, Sch Agr Sci, Dept Crop Sci, Univ Av 3780, BR-18610034 Botucatu, SP, Brazil
dc.description.sponsorshipFundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)
dc.description.sponsorshipFAPEG Goids Research Foundation
dc.description.sponsorshipFAPEMA Maranhao Research Foundation
dc.description.sponsorshipBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
dc.description.sponsorshipIdFAPESP: 2015/50305-8
dc.description.sponsorshipIdFAPEG Goids Research Foundation: 2015-10267001479
dc.description.sponsorshipIdFAPEMA Maranhao Research Foundation: RCUK-02771/16
dc.description.sponsorshipIdBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BB/N013201/1
dc.identifier.citationGeoderma. Amsterdam: Elsevier, v. 360, 7 p., 2020.
dc.publisherElsevier B.V.
dc.sourceWeb of Science
dc.subjectCropping system
dc.subjectTropical forage
dc.subjectNitrogen balance
dc.subjectNitrogen loss
dc.subjectNitrogen volatilization
dc.titleCover crops affect the partial nitrogen balance in a maize-forage cropping systemen
dcterms.rightsHolderElsevier B.V.[7][7]
unesp.departmentProdução e Melhoramento Vegetal - FCApt