Dietary protein sources and their effects on faecal odour and the composition of volatile organic compounds in faeces of French Bulldogs

dc.contributor.authorUrrego, Maria Isabel Gonzalez [UNESP]
dc.contributor.authorPedreira, Raquel Silveira
dc.contributor.authorSantos, Karine de Melo
dc.contributor.authorErnandes, Mariane Ceschin
dc.contributor.authorSantos, João Paulo Fernandes
dc.contributor.authorVendramini, Thiago Henrique Annibale
dc.contributor.authorEberlin, Marcos Nogueira
dc.contributor.authorBalieiro, Julio Cesar de Carvalho
dc.contributor.authorPontieri, Cristiana Ferreira Fonseca
dc.contributor.authorBrunetto, Marcio Antonio [UNESP]
dc.contributor.institutionUniversidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
dc.contributor.institutionGrandfood Indústria e Comércio Ltd
dc.contributor.institutionUniversidade de São Paulo (USP)
dc.contributor.institutionUniversidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)
dc.description.abstractThe strong odour of faeces and excessive production of gases in some dog breeds have long been a concern of owners. The pet food industry uses nutritional alternatives, such as high-quality ingredients and additives, to improve the odour of faeces. However, there are still some dog breeds, such as the French Bulldog, that present this problem due to the presence into the large intestine of indigested protein. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the volatile compounds that influence the odour of dog faeces is important. This study aimed to identify changes of faecal odour compounds that are most prevalent in French Bulldogs based on food containing different high-quality protein sources and their effect in sensory analysis. Four maintenance foods with different protein sources were formulated: P, poultry meal food; W, wheat gluten food; PW, poultry meal and wheat gluten food; and PWH, poultry meal, wheat gluten, and hydrolysed protein food. Eight adult French Bulldogs were arranged in a 4x4 Latin square design and adapted to foods for 28 days. Fresh faeces were collected for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and sensory analysis. The means were compared by SAS, and statistical significance was indicated by p ≤ 0.05. No adverse effects were observed in the animals regarding VOCs, and a significant difference was observed in two of the 68 compounds identified. The animals fed a P food had higher concentrations of phenol in the faeces, whereas the indole compound was present at higher concentrations in animals fed the W food. P food was associated with higher odour perception during sensory evaluation. In summary, the source of protein in the foods had little impact on the composition of VOCs, and a greater perception of the odour was determined by sensory analysis when foods containing animal protein were administered.en
dc.description.affiliationCollege of Animal Science and Food Engineering Sao Paulo State University
dc.description.affiliationGrandfood Indústria e Comércio Ltd
dc.description.affiliationAnimal Nutrition and Production Department School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Pet Nutrology Research Center University of São Paulo (USP)
dc.description.affiliationThomson Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Institute of Chemistry State University of Campinas
dc.description.affiliationUnespCollege of Animal Science and Food Engineering Sao Paulo State University
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, v. 105, n. S1, p. 65-75, 2021.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
dc.subjectmalodorous compounds
dc.titleDietary protein sources and their effects on faecal odour and the composition of volatile organic compounds in faeces of French Bulldogsen