Experimental infection with Brazilian newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

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Carrascoa, Adriano de Oliveira Torres
Sekia, Meire Christina
Benevenutea, Jyan Lucas
Ikeda, Priscila
Pinto, Aramis Augusto [UNESP]
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This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with New­castle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibi­tion and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle dis­ease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.
Columba livia, Experimental infection, Gallus gallus, RT-PCR, Serology
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Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, v. 47, n. 1, p. 231-242, 2016.