White light generation controlled by changing the concentration of silver nanoparticles hosted by Ho<sup>3+</sup>/Tm<sup>3+</sup>/Yb<sup>3+</sup> doped GeO<inf>2</inf>-PbO glasses


Frequency upconversion (UC) experiments were performed with GeO<inf>2</inf>-PbO glasses, containing silver nanoparticles (NPs), doped with holmium (Ho<sup>3+</sup>), thulium (Tm<sup>3+</sup>) and ytterbium (Yb<sup>3+</sup>) ions. The samples were excited using a continuous-wave diode laser operating at 980 nm. The UC intensities and the colors of the samples were controlled by changing the concentrations of the rare-earth ions (REI) and the silver NPs nucleated inside the samples. The colors observed spanned the visible range from the red-yellow to the blue. For a particular combination of silver NPs and REI concentrations it was obtained white light generation corresponding to the CIE coordinates X = 0.33 and Y = 0.33.



Energy transfer, Frequency upconversion, Germanate glass, Rare-earth ions, Silver nanoparticles, White light generation

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Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 644, p. 155-158.