Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae oral isolates from Brazilian HIV-positive patients. Correlation with CD4 cell counts and viral load

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Back Brito, Graziella Nuernberg [UNESP]
Ribeiro El Ackhar, Vivian Narana [UNESP]
Rodrigues Querido, Silvia Maria [UNESP]
Ferreira dos Santos, Silvana Sole
Cardoso Jorge, Antonio Olavo [UNESP]
de Macedo Reis, Alexandre de Souza
Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi [UNESP]

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Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd


The aim was to evaluate the presence of Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae in the oral cavities of HIV-positive patients. Forty-five individuals diagnosed as HIV-positive by ELISA and Western-blot, and under anti-retroviral therapy for at least 1 year, were included in the study. The control group constituted 45 systemically healthy individuals matched to the HIV patients to gender, age and oral conditions. Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API system. Counts of microorganisms from HIV and control groups were compared statistically by a Mann-Whitney test (alpha = 5%). The percentages of individuals positive for staphylococci were similar between the groups (p = 0.764), whereas for Gram-negative rods, a higher percentage was observed amongst HIV-positive (p = 0.001).There was no difference in Staphylococcus counts between HIV and control groups (p = 0.1008). Counts were lower in the oral cavities of patients with low viral load (p = 0.021), and no difference was observed in relation to CD4 counts (p = 0.929). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated species in HIV group, and Staphylococcus epidermidis was the prevalent species in the control group. Significantly higher numbers of enteric bacteria and pseudomonas were detected in the oral cavities of the HIV group than in the control (p = 0.0001). Enterobacter cloacae was the most frequently isolated species in both groups. Counts of enteric bacteria and pseudomonas were significantly lower in patients with low CD4 counts (p = 0.011); however, there was no difference relating to viral load. It may be concluded that HIV group showed greater species diversity and a higher prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae/Pseudomonadaceae. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



HIV, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Saliva, Bacteria

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Archives of Oral Biology. Oxford: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd, v. 56, n. 10, p. 1041-1046, 2011.