Are smoking, environmental pollution, and weather conditions risk factors for COVID-19?

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Chatkin, José Miguel
Godoy, Irma [UNESP]

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Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the highly contagious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is probably systemic, has a major respiratory component, and is transmitted by person-to-person contact, via airborne droplets or aerosols. In the respiratory tract, the virus begins to replicate within cells, after which the host starts shedding the virus. The individuals recognized as being at risk for an unfavorable COVID-19 outcome are those > 60 years of age, those with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, those with hypertension, and those with chronic lung diseases, as well as those using chemotherapy, corticosteroids, or biological agents. Some studies have suggested that infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with other risk factors, such as smoking, external environmental pollution, and certain climatic conditions. The purpose of this narrative review was to perform a critical assessment of the relationship between COVID-19 and these potential risk factors.



Coronavirus infections, COVID-19, Air pollution, Smoking, Tobacco use disorder

Como citar

Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia. Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia, v. 46, n. 05, p. -, 2020.