Heart rate variability analysis by chaotic global techniques in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by decreased attention span, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. Autonomic nervous system imbalance was previously described in this population. We aim to compare the autonomic function of children with ADHD and controls by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV). Children with ADHD (22 boys, mean age 9.964 years) and 28 controls (15 boys, mean age 9.857 years) rested in supine position with spontaneous breathing for 20 min. Heart rate was recorded beat by beat. HRV analysis was performed by use of chaotic global techniques. ADHD promoted an increase in the chaotic forward parameter. The algorithm which applied all three chaotic global parameters was only the second optimum statistically measured by Kruskal–Wallis (P < 0.0001) and low standard deviations. It was also highly influential by principal component analysis with almost all variation covered by the first two components. The third algorithm which lacked the (high spectral Detrended Fluctuation Analysis) parameter performed best statistically. However, we chose the algorithm which applied all three chaotic globals due to previous studies mentioned in the text—forward and inverse problems. Comparison of the autonomic function by analyzing HRV with chaotic global techniques suggests an increase in chaotic activity in children with ADHD in relation to the control group. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Complexity 21: 412–419, 2016.