Antimicrobial activity of paepalanthus planifolius and its major components against selected human pathogens
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The chemical investigation of ethyl acetate extract from Paepalanthus planifolius capitula resulted in the identification of 1H-naphtho[2,3-c]pyran-1-one,9-[(6-O β D glucopyranosyl- β D glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3,4-dihydro-10-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-methyl, semi-vioxanthin 9 O β D glucopyranoside, toralactone-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, paepalantine- 9 O β D glucopyranoside, semi-vioxanthin, 1H-naphtho[2,3-c]pyran-1-one,3,4-dihydro- 9,10 dihydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-3-methyl, vioxanthin and paepalantine dimer, and also the isolation and identification of a new naphthopyranone dimer named planifoliusin A. The chemical structures of two compounds were elucidated by performing spectroscopic 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments and spectrometric HRMS (high-resolution mass spectrometry) analysis. Other six naphthopyranone dimers were proposed by MS fragmentation patterns. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for vioxanthin (7.8 μg mL-1), planifoliusin A (15.6 μg mL-1) and the ethyl acetate extract (31.2 μg mL-1) showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923).